Control de versión

Los repositorios administrados de documentos son importantes en el trabajo en equipo cuando varios miembros deben trabajar de manera simultánea o coordinada sobre los mismos documentos, pero también es útil en el caso de lobos solitarios. Control de versión es el arte de administrar cambios. Es una herramienta crítica en el desarrollo de software.

Algunos sistemas de control de versión son administradores de software (Software Configuration Management). Estos sistemas están especí­ficamente diseñados para administrar árboles de código fuente y soportan el ciclo de vida de aplicaciones. Otros sistemas son repositorios generales de documentos.

Un repositorio de información para control de versión guarda un registro de los cambios hechos tanto a los datos como a la estructura misma de archivos. Un cliente puede no solo ver la última versión de los documentos guardados, sino también estados previos del sistema de archivos. Por ejemplo un cliente puede hacer consultas del tipo ¿Qué cambios se hicieron en un documento en la última semana?

El problema fundamental es por un lado ¿Cómo compartir información y coordinar modificaciones concurrentes a un grupo de documentos? Y complementariamente ¿Cómo recuperar estados anteriores de los documentos cuando una serie de cambios resultan inapropiados o se requieren variaciones de base común?

Un enfoque para evitar conflictos es reservar-modificar-cambiar (lock-modify-unlock). Este enfoque no siempre garantiza la integridad o coherencia de un sistema cuando se trabaja con múltiples documentos y serializa el trabajo innecesariamente cuando se pudiera hacer cambios independientes. Otro enfoque es copiar-modificar-integrar (copy-modify-merge). El repositorio puede asistir en el manejo de documentos y sus cambios, pero una persona necesita hacer el análisis de si un conjunto de cambios es valido y los miembros de un equipo deben mantener una buena comunicación.

En el caso particular del software algunas de las áreas que soporta un SCM son:

        • Administración de versiones múltiples, permitiendo a usuarios y desarrolladores reportas defectos y cambios con relación a versiones históricas.

       

    • Administración de equipos de desarrollo, permitiendo que varios programadores trabajen en un mismo archivo e integrando los cambios.
    • Auditorias de cambios.

 

Los sistemas de control de versión trabajan con dos elementos base: áreas de trabajo y repositorios. Las áreas de trabajo es donde se hacen cambios y el repositorio es el lugar donde se guardan los documentos de referencia que sincronizan el trabajo de todos y define el estado de la información. El repositorio guarda metadata que permite rastrear cambios y versiones.
El paradigma central de control de versión es Pedir/Aplicar (check out/commit). Todos los documentos se almacenan en el repositorio. El programador registra una copia en su área de trabajo y procede a aplicar cambios a su copia. Cuando los cambios son estables, se aplican al repositorio de acuerdo a polí­ticas de administración de cambios y resolución de conflictos.

Dos conceptos importantes en la administración de cambios son ramas (branches) y etiquetas (tags). La ramificación del código permite mantener el desarrollo del sistema y liberar versiones de acuerdo a plataformas, características y pruebas; O para pruebas de código experimental. Etiquetas son similares a ramas pero puntos de referencia en la misma línea de desarrollo, no a una variante del mismo.

El abuelito y punto de referencia de los sistemas de control de versión es CVS, referenciado a scripts escritos por Dick Grune y publicados en comp.sources.unix en diciembre de 1986.

Sistemas de control de versión:
CVS
Subversion
Perforce (p4)
BitKeeper
VOODOO Server
ClearCase
RCS (Revision Control System)

Ajax

Ajax (also AJAX; /ˈæks/; an acronym for Asynchronous JavaScript and XML)[1] is a group of interrelated web development techniques used on the client-side to create asynchronous web applications. With Ajax, web applications can send data to, and retrieve data from, a server asynchronously (in the background) without interfering with the display and behavior of the existing page. Data can be retrieved using the XMLHttpRequest object. Despite the name, the use of XML is not required (JSON is often used instead), and the requests do not need to be asynchronous.[2]

Ajax is not a single technology, but a group of technologies. HTML and CSS can be used in combination to mark up and style information. The DOM is accessed with JavaScript to dynamically display, and allow the user to interact with, the information presented. JavaScript and the XMLHttpRequest object provide a method for exchanging data asynchronously between browser and server to avoid full page reloads.

The Document Object Model (DOM) is a cross-platform and language-independent convention for representing and interacting with objects in HTML, XHTML and XML documents.[1] Objects in the DOM tree may be addressed and manipulated by using methods on the objects. The public interface of a DOM is specified in its application programming interface (API). The history of the Document Object Model is intertwined with the history of the “browser wars” of the late 1990s between Netscape Navigator and Microsoft Internet Explorer, as well as with that of JavaScript and JScript, the first scripting languages to be widely implemented in the layout engines of web browsers.

Dojo or jQuery, quick answer

  • JQuery if you are new to javascript/web programming and only want to jazz up your pages a little. Also, if your project is only a few months and/or only a few hundred lines, pick JQuery. It will get you there faster.
  • Dojo if you have a large project and can spend time on a very steep learning curve and want to be able to create and re-use widgets, data connections and whatnot.

This answer do not take into account the “fun factor”. If your aim is to have fun JQuery will give you a quick fix but Dojo will be more rewarding in the long run.

Eclipse in ubuntu

Eclipse is a multi-language Integrated development environment (IDE) comprising a base workspace and an extensible plug-in system for customizing the environment. It is written mostly in Java. It can be used to develop applications in Java and, by means of various plug-ins, other programming languages including Ada, C, C++, COBOL, Fortran, Haskell, JavaScript, Perl, PHP, Python, R, Ruby (including Ruby on Rails framework), Scala, Clojure, Groovy, Scheme, and Erlang. It can also be used to develop packages for the software Mathematica. Development environments include the Eclipse Java development tools (JDT) for Java and Scala, Eclipse CDT for C/C++ and Eclipse PDT for PHP, among others.

The initial codebase originated from IBM VisualAge.[2] The Eclipse software development kit (SDK), which includes the Java development tools, is meant for Java developers. Users can extend its abilities by installing plug-ins written for the Eclipse Platform, such as development toolkits for other programming languages, and can write and contribute their own plug-in modules.

Released under the terms of the Eclipse Public License, Eclipse SDK is free and open source software (although it is incompatible with the GNU General Public License[3]). It was one of the first IDEs to run under GNU Classpath and it runs without problems under IcedTea.

Ubuntu, here are some steps that help you getting Eclipse working on Ubuntu

1. Install Sun Java JDK

#sudo apt-get install sun-java6-jdk

2.  Download Eclipse
You can go to official site http://www.eclipse.org/downloads/ and choose your edition,

Save to your Desktop

3. Extract Eclipse
Open Terminal, and execute:

#cd ~/Desktop
#tar xzf eclipse-php-galileo-linux-gtk.tar.gz (replace your downloaded file name here)
#sudo mv eclipse /opt/eclipse
#sudo mv eclipse-galileo.png /opt/eclipse
#cd /opt
#sudo chown -R root:root eclipse
#sudo chmod -R 755 eclipse
#cd /opt/eclipse
#sudo chmod +x eclipse

4. Create a .desktop file to eclipse:

gedit ~/.local/share/applications/opt_eclipse.desktop

Then, paste this inside (dont forget to edit Exec and Icon values):

[Desktop Entry]
Type=Application
Name=Eclipse
Comment=Eclipse Integrated Development Environment
Icon=** something like /opt/eclipse/icon.xpm **
Exec= ** something like /opt/eclipse/eclipse **
Terminal=false
Categories=Development;IDE;Java;
StartupWMClass=Eclipse

After that, open that folder with nautilus:

nautilus ~/.local/share/applications

If you want to use this launcher outside dash/launcher (ex: as a desktop launcher) you need to add execution permission by right clicking the file and choosing Properties -> Permissions -> Allow execution, or, via the command-line:

chmod +x ~/.local/share/applications/opt_eclipse.desktop

Finally drop opt_eclipse.desktop to launcher.


Uploaded on Oct 29, 2011

A short walkthrought of the Eclipse Software Development Kit.

Plugins used in this video:
1. PHPEclipse (http://www.phpeclipse.com/)
2. Aptana Studio (http://www.aptana.com/)
3. Subversive (http://www.eclipse.org/subversive/)

Uploaded on Nov 24, 2011

Tutorial showing installation, requirements and configuration of Eclipse itself and the PHPEclipse plug-in.

Link mentioned in the video regarding line endings: http://www.evolt.org/node/60247 (scroll to Linefeeds part)

Published on Mar 16, 2013

A short tutorial outlining the features of PHPEclipse.

 

Published on Mar 22, 2013

A quick walkthrough on all the goodies Aptana plugin for Eclipse provides when editing HTML, CSS and JavaScript code.

Link about Java 7 and FTP problems on Windows 7+ mentioned in the video: http://stackoverflow.com/questions/69…

 

Published on Apr 3, 2013

Quick tips and tricks to help you effectively tackle the most redundant activities during development – including extra safeguard tip using the Local History.

 

Published on May 10, 2013

Presentation of 2 ways I know of to work with FTP and synchronization in Eclipse:

1. utilizing Aptana’s remote synchronization (http://www.aptana.com)
2. using the not-yet-so-deprecated FTP and WebDav Eclipse plugin (http://jcraft.com, http://eclipse.jcraft.com)

Published on May 26, 2013

Quick introduction to remote versioning systems with a peek into Eclipse’s SVN interface and TortoiseSVN program.

Link to SourceForge: https://sourceforge.net/
Link to GitHub: https://github.com/
Link to the Timeline: Inventions project: https://sourceforge.net/projects/time…

perl

Perl is a family of high-level, general-purpose, interpreted, dynamic programming languages. The languages in this family include Perl 5 and Perl 6.[4]

Though Perl is not officially an acronym,[5] there are various backronyms in use, such as: Practical Extraction and Reporting Language.[6] Perl was originally developed by Larry Wall in 1987 as a general-purpose Unix scripting language to make report processing easier.[7] Since then, it has undergone many changes and revisions. The latest major stable revision of Perl 5 is 5.18, released in May 2013. Perl 6, which began as a redesign of Perl 5 in 2000, eventually evolved into a separate language. Both languages continue to be developed independently by different development teams and liberally borrow ideas from one another.

The Perl languages borrow features from other programming languages including C, shell scripting (sh), AWK, and sed.[8] They provide powerful text processing facilities without the arbitrary data-length limits of many contemporary Unix tools,[9] facilitating easy manipulation of text files. Perl 5 gained widespread popularity in the late 1990s as a CGI scripting language, in part due to its parsing abilities.[10]

In addition to CGI, Perl 5 is used for graphics programming, system administration, network programming, finance, bioinformatics, and other applications. It’s nicknamed “the Swiss Army chainsaw of scripting languages” because of its flexibility and power,[11] and possibly also because of its perceived “ugliness”.[12] In 1998, it was also referred to as the “duct tape that holds the Internet together”, in reference to its ubiquity and perceived inelegance.[13]

Perl was originally named “Pearl”. Wall wanted to give the language a short name with positive connotations; he claims that he considered (and rejected) every three- and four-letter word in the dictionary. He also considered naming it after his wife Gloria. Wall discovered the existing PEARL programming language before Perl’s official release and changed the spelling of the name.[36]

When referring to the language, the name is normally capitalized (Perl) as a proper noun. When referring to the interpreter program itself, the name is often uncapitalized (perl) because most Unix-like file systems are case-sensitive. Before the release of the first edition of Programming Perl, it was common to refer to the language as perl; Randal L. Schwartz, however, capitalized the language’s name in the book to make it stand out better when typeset. This case distinction was subsequently documented as canonical.[37]

There is some contention about the all-caps spelling “PERL”, which the documentation declares incorrect[37] and which some core community members consider a sign of outsiders.[38] The name is occasionally expanded as Practical Extraction and Report Language, but this is a backronym.[39] Other expansions have been suggested as equally canonical, including Wall’s own humorous Pathologically Eclectic Rubbish Lister.[40] Indeed, Wall claims that the name was intended to inspire many different expansions.[41]

The Comprehensive Perl Archive Network (CPAN) currently has 121,260 Perl modules in 27,769 distributions, written by 10,733 authors, mirrored on 270 servers.

The archive has been online since October 1995 and is constantly growing.

CPAN, the Comprehensive Perl Archive Network, is an archive of over 114,000 modules of software written in the Perl programming language, as well as documentation for them.[1] It has a presence on the World Wide Web at www.cpan.org and is mirrored worldwide at more than 200 locations.[2] CPAN can denote either the archive network itself, or the Perl program that acts as an interface to the network and as an automated software installer (somewhat like a package manager). Most software on CPAN is free and open source software.[3] CPAN was conceived in 1993, and the first web-accessible mirror was launched in January 1997.[4]

Like many programming languages, Perl has mechanisms to use external libraries of code, making one file contain common routines used by several programs. Perl calls these modules. Perl modules are typically installed in one of several directories whose paths are placed in the Perl interpreter when it is first compiled; on Unix-like operating systems, common paths include /usr/lib/perl5, /usr/local/lib/perl5, and several of their subdirectories.

Perl comes with a small set of core modules. Some of these perform bootstrapping tasks, such as ExtUtils::MakeMaker, which is used for building and installing other extension modules; others, like CGI.pm, are merely commonly used. The authors of Perl do not expect this limited group to meet every need, however.

The CPAN’s main purpose is to help programmers locate modules and programs not included in the Perl standard distribution. Its structure is decentralized. Authors maintain and improve their own modules. Forking, and creating competing modules for the same task or purpose is common. There is no formal bug tracking system, but there is a third-party bug tracking system that CPAN designated as the suggested official method of reporting issues with modules. Continuous development on modules is rare; many are abandoned by their authors, or go years between new versions being released. Sometimes a maintainer will be appointed to an abandoned module. They can release new versions of the module, and accept patches from the community to the module as their time permits. CPAN has no revision control system, although the source for the modules is often stored on GitHub. Also, the complete history of the CPAN and all its modules is available as the GitPAN project, allowing to easily see the complete history for all the modules and for easy maintenance of forks. CPAN is also used to distribute new versions of Perl, as well as related projects, such as Parrot.

The CPAN is an important resource for the professional Perl programmer. With over 23,000 modules (containing 20,000,000 lines of code) as of July 2011, the CPAN can save programmers weeks of time, and large Perl programs often make use of dozens of modules. Some of them, such as the DBI family of modules used for interfacing with SQL databases, are nearly irreplaceable in their area of function; others, such as the List::Util module, are simply handy resources containing a few common functions.

Files on the CPAN are referred to as distributions. A distribution may consist of one or more modules, documentation files, or programs packaged in a common archiving format, such as a gzipped tar archive or a ZIP file. Distributions will often contain installation scripts (usually called Makefile.PL or Build.PL) and test scripts which can be run to verify the contents of the distribution are functioning properly. New distributions are uploaded to the Perl Authors Upload Server, or PAUSE (see the section Uploading distributions with PAUSE).

In 2003, distributions started to include metadata files, called META.yml, indicating the distribution’s name, version, dependencies, and other useful information; however, not all distributions contain metadata. When metadata is not present in a distribution, the PAUSE’s software will usually try to analyze the code in the distribution to look for the same information; this is not necessarily very reliable.

With thousands of distributions, CPAN needs to be structured to be useful. Distributions on the CPAN are divided into 24 broad chapters based on their purpose, such as Internationalization and Locale; Archiving, Compression, And Conversion; and Mail and Usenet News. Distributions can also be browsed by author. Finally, the natural hierarchy of Perl module names (such as “Apache::DBI” or “Lingua::EN::Inflect”) can sometimes be used to browse modules in the CPAN.

CPAN module distributions usually have names in the form of CGI-Application-3.1 (where the :: used in the module’s name has been replaced with a dash, and the version number has been appended to the name), but this is only a convention; many prominent distributions break the convention, especially those that contain multiple modules. Security restrictions prevent a distribution from ever being replaced, so virtually all distribution names do include a version number.

There is also a Perl core module named CPAN; it is usually differentiated from the repository itself by using the name CPAN.pm. CPAN.pm is mainly an interactive shell which can be used to search for, download, and install distributions. An interactive shell called cpan is also provided in the Perl core, and is the usual way of running CPAN.pm. After a short configuration process and mirror selection, it uses tools available on the user’s computer to automatically download, unpack, compile, test, and install modules. It is also capable of updating itself.

More recently, an effort to replace CPAN.pm with something cleaner and more modern has resulted in the CPANPLUS (or CPAN++) set of modules. CPANPLUS separates the back-end work of downloading, compiling, and installing modules from the interactive shell used to issue commands. It also supports several advanced features, such as cryptographic signature checking and test result reporting. Finally, CPANPLUS can uninstall a distribution. CPANPLUS was added to the Perl core in version 5.10.0.

Both modules can check a distribution’s dependencies and can be set to recursively install any prerequisites, either automatically or with individual user approval. Both support FTP and HTTP and can work through firewalls and proxies.

Install all dependent packages for CPAN

sudo apt-get install build-essential

Invoke the cpan command as a normal user

cpan

Once you hit on enter for “cpan” to execute, you be asked of some few questions. To make it simple for yourself, answer “no” for the first question so that the latter ones will be done for you automatically.

Enter the commands below

make install
install Bundle::CPAN

Now all is set and you can install any perl module you want.

Type o conf init to reconfigure cpan.

The Best Perl Programmers Use Modern Perl

by chromatic

In 1987, Perl 1.0 changed the world. In the decades since then, the language has grown from a simple tool for system administration somewhere between shell scripting and C programming to a powerful, general purpose language steeped in a rich heritage.

Even so, most Perl 5 programs in the world take far too little advantage of the language. You can write Perl 5 programs as if they were Perl 4 programs (or Perl 3 or 2 or 1), but programs written to take advantage of everything amazing the worldwide Perl 5 community has invented, polished, and discovered are shorter, faster, more powerful, and easier to maintain than their alternatives.

They solve difficult problems with speed and elegance. They take advantage of the CPAN and its unparalleled library of reusable code. They get things done.

This productivity can be yours, whether you’ve dabbled with Perl for a decade or someone just handed you this book and said “Fix this code by Friday.”

Modern Perl is suitable for programmers of every level. It’s more than a Perl tutorial—only Modern Perl focuses on Perl 5.12 and 5.14, to demonstrate the latest and most effective time-saving features. Only Modern Perl explains how and why the language works, to let you unlock the full power of Perl.

Hone your skills. Sharpen your knowledge of the tools and techniques that make Perl so effective. Master everything Perl has to offer.

When you have to solve a problem now, reach for Perl. When you have to solve a problem right, reach for Modern Perl.

Visit the companion website at Modern Perl Books or read Modern Perl: the Book online.

Modern Perl installations include two clients to connect to, search, download, build, test, and install CPAN distributions, CPAN.pm and CPANPLUS. For the most part, each of these clients is equivalent for basic installation. This book recommends the use of CPAN.pm solely due to its ubiquity. With a recent version (as of this writing, 1.9800 is the latest stable release), module installation is reasonably easy. Start the client with:

    $ cpan

To install a distribution within the client:

    $ cpan
    cpan[1]> install Modern::Perl

… or to install directly from the command line:

    $ cpan Modern::Perl

Eric Wilhelm’s tutorial on configuring CPAN.pm http://learnperl.scratchcomputing.com/tutorials/configuration/ includes a great troubleshooting section.

The Eric Python IDE

Eric is a full featured Python and Ruby editor and IDE, written in python. It is based on the cross platform Qt gui toolkit, integrating the highly flexible Scintilla editor control. It is designed to be usable as everdays’ quick and dirty editor as well as being usable as a professional project management tool integrating many advanced features Python offers the professional coder. eric4 includes a plugin system, which allows easy extension of the IDE functionality with plugins downloadable from the net.

Current stable versions are eric4 based on Qt4 and Python 2 and eric5 based on Python 3 and Qt4.


http://ubuntuforums.org/showthread.php?t=1601218
sudo apt-get install libqt4-dev
install python3.2-dev (sudo apt-get install python3.2-dev)
Use Synaptic or Download it from here: http://www.riverbankcomputing.co.uk
1) build/install qscintilla
2) build/install sip
3) build/install PyQt
Python 3.2.3
Qt 4.8.1
PyQt 4.9.1
QScintilla 2.6.1


Python from Scratch

Android SDK

Android software development is the process by which new applications are created for the Android operating system. Applications are usually developed in the Java programming language using the Android Software Development Kit, but other development tools are available. As of October 2012[update], more than 700,000 applications have been developed for Android, with over 25 billion downloads.[2][3] A June 2011 research indicated that over 67% of mobile developers used the platform, at the time of publication.[4] In Q2 2012; around 105 million units of Android smartphones were shipped which acquires a total share of 68% in overall smartphones sale till Q2 2012.[5]

The ADT Bundle provides everything you need to start developing apps, including a version of the Eclipse IDE with built-in ADT (Android Developer Tools) to streamline your Android app development. If you haven’t already, go download the Android ADT Bundle. (If you downloaded the SDK Tools only, for use with an existing IDE, you should instead read Setting Up an Existing IDE.)

Install the SDK and Eclipse IDE

  1. Unpack the ZIP file (named adt-bundle-<os_platform>.zip) and save it to an appropriate location, such as a “Development” directory in your home directory.
  2. Open the adt-bundle-<os_platform>/eclipse/ directory and launch eclipse.

That’s it! The IDE is already loaded with the Android Developer Tools plugin and the SDK is ready to go. To start developing, read Building Your First App.

Caution: Do not move any of the files or directories from the adt-bundle-<os_platform> directory. If you move the eclipse or sdk directory, ADT will not be able to locate the SDK and you’ll need to manually update the ADT preferences.

Additional information

As you continue developing apps, you may need to install additional versions of Android for the emulator and other packages such as the library for Google Play In-app Billing. To install more packages, use the SDK Manager.

Everything you need to develop Android apps is on this web site, including design guidelines, developer training, API reference, and information about how you can distribute your app. For additional resources about developing and distributing your app, see the Developer Support Resources.

There is a community of open-source enthusiasts that build and share Android-based firmware with a number of customizations and additional features, such as FLAC lossless audio support and the ability to store downloaded applications on the microSD card.[42] This usually involves rooting the device. Rooting allows users root access to the operating system, enabling full control of the phone. In order to use custom firmwares the device’s bootloader must be unlocked. Rooting alone does not allow the flashing of custom firmware. Modified firmwares allow users of older phones to use applications available only on newer releases.[43]

Those firmware packages are updated frequently, incorporate elements of Android functionality that haven’t yet been officially released within a carrier-sanctioned firmware, and tend to have fewer limitations. CyanogenMod and OMFGB are examples of such firmware.

On 24 September 2009, Google issued a cease and desist letter[44] to the modder Cyanogen, citing issues with the re-distribution of Google’s closed-source applications[45] within the custom firmware. Even though most of Android OS is open source, phones come packaged with closed-source Google applications for functionality such as the Android Market and GPS navigation. Google has asserted that these applications can only be provided through approved distribution channels by licensed distributors. Cyanogen has complied with Google’s wishes and is continuing to distribute this mod without the proprietary software. He has provided a method to back up licensed Google applications during the mod’s install process and restore them when it is complete.[46]

The NDK is a toolset that allows you to implement parts of your app using native-code languages such as C and C++. For certain types of apps, this can be helpful so you can reuse existing code libraries written in these languages, but most apps do not need the Android NDK.

Before downloading the NDK, you should understand that the NDK will not benefit most apps. As a developer, you need to balance its benefits against its drawbacks. Notably, using native code on Android generally does not result in a noticable performance improvement, but it always increases your app complexity. In general, you should only use the NDK if it is essential to your app—never because you simply prefer to program in C/C++.

Typical good candidates for the NDK are self-contained, CPU-intensive operations that don’t allocate much memory, such as signal processing, physics simulation, and so on. When examining whether or not you should develop in native code, think about your requirements and see if the Android framework APIs provide the functionality that you need.


MobileGo is a life saver for those who love music and video, text a lot and juggle apps on their Android phones and tablets.

Android Fans:Backup everything to PC with 1 click & retain 100% quality.
Music Lovers:Instantly add fun stuff and enjoy media anytime, anywhere.
App Addicts:Download, install, uninstall and export apps quickly and easily.
Socialites:Transfer contacts from/to Outlook and send & reply SMS seamlessly from your PC.
The Android 3.1 platform (also backported to Android 2.3.4) introduces Android Open Accessory support, which allows external USB hardware (an Android USB accessory) to interact with an Android-powered device in a special “accessory” mode. When an Android-powered device is in accessory mode, the connected accessory acts as the USB host (powers the bus and enumerates devices) and the Android-powered device acts as the USB device. Android USB accessories are specifically designed to attach to Android-powered devices and adhere to a simple protocol (Android accessory protocol) that allows them to detect Android-powered devices that support accessory mode.[22]

Herramientas gratuitas para UML

Existen herramientas gratuitas de buena caliadad para UML. Tanto Netbeans como Eclipse soportan esta funcionalidad con el ciclo completo de desarrollo desde generación de código hasta reingenieria. Esto, claro, si se quiere trabajar en Java. En .Net no he encontrado este grado de funcionalidad en herramientas Open Source. Una opción de bajo costo, relativo a RUP y similares, es Visual UML. Visual Paradigm tiene una edición limitada sin costo, Smart Development Environment Community Edition for Visual Studio.

UML, ejemplo sencillo sobre Modelado de un Proyecto Introducción a UML

Eclipse, herramienta universal – IDE abierto y extensible

Eclipse: una herramienta profesional al alcance de todos Pese a que Eclipse está escrito en su mayor parte en Java (salvo el núcleo) y que su uso más popular sea como un IDE para Java, Eclipse es neutral y adaptable a cualquier tipo de lenguaje, por ejemplo C/C++, Cobol, C#, XML, etc. La característica clave de Eclipse es la extensibilidad. Eclipse es una gran estructura formada por un núcleo y muchos plug-ins que van conformando la funcionalidad final. La forma en que los plug-ins interactúan es mediante interfaces o puntos de extensión; así, las nuevas aportaciones se integran sin dificultad ni conflictos.

Eclipse fue producto de una inversión de cuarenta millones de dólares de IBM en su desarrollo antes de ofrecerlo como un producto de código abierto al consorcio Eclipse.org que estaba compuesto inicialmente por Borland e IBM. IBM sigue dirigiendo el desarrollo de Eclipse a través de su subsidiaria OTI (Object Technologies International), creadora de Eclipse. OTI fue adquirida por IBM en 1996 y se consolidó como gran empresa de desarrollo de herramientas orientadas a objeto (O.O.) desde la popularidad del lenguaje Smalltalk. OTI era la división de IBM en la que se generaron los productos Visual Age, que marcaron el estándar de las herramientas de desarrollo Orientado a objetos. Muchos conceptos pioneros en Smalltalk fueron aplicados en Java, creando Visual Age for Java (VA4J). VA4J fue escrito en Smalltalk. Eclipse es una reescritura de VA4J en Java. La base para Eclipse es la Plataforma de cliente enriquecido (del Inglés Rich Client Platform RCP). Los siguientes componentes constituyen la plataforma de cliente enriquecido:

Plataforma principal – inicio de Eclipse, ejecución de plugins OSGi – una plataforma para integrar distribuciones. El Standard Widget Toolkit (SWT) – Un widget toolkit portable. JFace – manejo de archivos, manejo de texto, editores de texto El Workbench de Eclipse – vistas, editores, perspectivas, asistentes

Los widgets de Eclipse están implementados por un herramienta de widget para Java llamada SWT, a diferencia de la mayoría de las aplicaciones Java, que usan las opciones estándar Abstract Window Toolkit (AWT) o Swing. La interfaz de usuario de Eclipse también tiene una capa GUI intermedia llamada JFace, la cual simplifica la construcción de aplicaciones basada en SWT. El entorno integrado de desarrollo (IDE) de Eclipse emplea módulos (plug-in) para proporcionar toda su funcionalidad al frente de la plataforma de cliente rico, a diferencia de otros entornos monolí­ticos donde las funcionalidades están todas incluidas, las necesite el usuario o no. Este mecanismo de módulos es una plataforma ligera para componentes de software. Se provee soporte para Java y CVS en el SDK de Eclipse. En cuanto a las aplicaciones clientes, eclipse provee al programador con frameworks muy ricos para el desarrollo de aplicaciones gráficas, definición y manipulación de modelos de software, aplicaciones web, etc. Por ejemplo, GEF (Graphic Editing Framework – Framework para la edición gráfica) es un plugin de eclipse para el desarrollo de editores visuales que pueden ir desde procesadores de texto wysiwyg hasta editores de diagramas UML, interfaces gráficas para el usuario (GUI), etc. El SDK de Eclipse incluye las herramientas de desarrollo de Java, ofreciendo un IDE con un compilador de Java interno y un modelo completo de los archivos fuente de Java. Esto permite técnicas avanzadas de refactorización y análisis de código. El IDE también hace uso de un espacio de trabajo, en este caso un grupo de metadata en un espacio para archivos plano, permitiendo modificaciones externas a los archivos en tanto se refresque el espacio de trabajo correspondiente. Núcleo: su tarea es determinar cuales son los plug-ins disponibles en el directorio de plug-ins de Eclipse. Cada plug-in tiene un fichero XML manifest que lista los elementos que necesita de otros plug-ins así­ como los puntos de extensión que ofrece. Como la cantidad de plug-ins puede ser muy grande, solo se cargan los necesarios en el momento de ser utilizados con el objeto de minimizar el tiempo de arranque de Eclipse y recursos. Entorno de trabajo: maneja los recursos del usuario, organizados en uno o más proyectos. Cada proyecto corresponde a un directorio en el directorio de trabajo de Eclipse, y contienen archivos y carpetas. Interfaz de usuario: muestra los menús y herramientas, y se organiza en perspectivas que configuran los editores de código y las vistas. A diferencia de muchas aplicaciones escritas en Java, Eclipse tiene el aspecto y se comporta como una aplicación nativa. Esta programada SWT (Standard Widget Toolkit) y Jface (juego de herramientas construida sobre SWT), que emula los gráficos nativos de cada sistema operativo. Este ha sido un aspecto discutido sobre Eclipse, porque SWT debe ser portada a cada sistema operativo para interactuar con el sistema gráfico. En los proyectos de Java puede usarse AWT y Swing salvo cuando se desarrolle un plug-in para Eclipse. Para descargar Eclipse existen distribuciones con diferentes combinaciones de plug-ins dependiendo del uso que se le quiera dar a la herramienta. Un problema que se presenta con estas distribuciones es que en Windows XP el descompresor integrado a veces falla y es preferible usar un programa externo como 7-zip, WinZIP, o info-zip

subversion

¿Qué es Subversion?

Subversion es un sistema de control de versiones libre y de código fuente abierto. Es decir, Subversion maneja ficheros y directorios a través del tiempo. Hay un Árbol de archivos en un repositorio central. El repositorio es como un servidor de archivos ordinario, excepto que recuerda todos los cambios hechos a sus archivos y directorios. Esto permite recuperar versiones antiguas de datos o examinar el historial de cambios de los mismos. En este aspecto, mucha gente piensa en los sistemas de versiones como en una especie de máquina del tiempo.

Subversion proporciona:

Versionado de directorios
CVS solamente lleva el historial de archivos individuales, pero Subversion implementa un sistema de archivos versionado virtual que sigue los cambios sobre árboles de directorios completos a través del tiempo. Ambos, archivos y directorios, se encuentran bajo el control de versiones.
Verdadero historial de versiones
CVS está limitado al versionado de archivos. Operaciones como copiar y renombrar, las cuales pueden ocurrir sobre archivos, pero realmente son cambios al contenido del directorio en el que se encuentran, no son soportadas por CVS. Adicionalmente, en CVS no puede reemplazar un archivo versionado con algo nuevo que lleve el mismo nombre sin que el nuevo elemento herede el historial del archivo antiguo que quizás sea completamente distinto al anterior. Con Subversion, se puede añadir, borrar, copiar, y renombrar archivos y directorios. Cada fichero nuevo añadido comienza con un historial nuevo, limpio y completamente suyo.
Envíos atómicos
Una colección cualquiera de modificaciones o bien entra por completo al repositorio, o bien no lo hace en absoluto. Ésto permite a los desarrolladores construir y enviar los cambios como fragmentos lógicos e impide que ocurran problemas cuando sólo una parte de los cambios enviados lo hace con éxito.
Versionado de metadatos
Cada archivo o directorio tiene un conjunto de propiedades claves y sus valores asociado. Se puede crear y almacenar cualquier par arbitrario de clave/valor. Las propiedades son versionadas a través del tiempo, al igual que el contenido de los ficheros.
Elección de las capas de red
Subversion tiene una noción abstracta del acceso al repositorio, facilitando a las personas implementar nuevos mecanismos de red. Subversion puede conectarse al servidor HTTP Apache como un módulo de extensión. Ésto proporciona a Subversion una gran ventaja en estabilidad e interoperabilidad, y acceso instantáneo a las caracterí­sticas existentes que ofrece este servidor: autenticación, autorización, compresión de la conexión, etcétera. También tiene disponible un servidor de Subversion independiente, y más ligero. Este servidor habla un protocolo propio, el cual puede ser encaminado fácilmente a través de un túnel SSH.
La versión de default trabaja con apache 2.0 pero es posible bajar un versión para apache 2.2.4
Manipulación consistente de datos
Subversion expresa las diferencias del archivo usando un algoritmo de diferenciación binario, que funciona idénticamente con ficheros de texto (legibles para humanos) y ficheros binarios (ilegibles para humanos). Ambos tipos de ficheros son almacenados igualmente comprimidos en el repositorio, y las diferencias son transmitidas en ambas direcciones a través de la red.
Ramificación y etiquetado eficientes
El coste de ramificación y etiquetado no necesita ser proporcional al tamaño del proyecto. Subversion crea ramas y etiquetas simplemente copiando el proyecto, usando un mecanismo similar al enlace duro. De este modo estas operaciones toman solamente una cantidad de tiempo pequeña y constante.

Subversion almacena todos los datos versionados en un repositorio central. TortoiseSvn is un proyecto hermano que proporciona integración con Windows explorer. Vea Capítulo 6, Configuración del servidor para aprender acerca de los diferentes tipos de procesos servidor disponibles y cómo configurarlos. svnserver puede correr como un servicio de Windows. Para crear el servicio http://svn.haxx.se/dev/archive-2006-11/0348.shtmlhttp://httpd.apache.org/download.cgi

http://svnbook.red-bean.com/en/1.0/ch06s03.html

http://svn.collab.net/repos/svn/trunk/notes/windows-service.txt

LISP

Lisp (historically, LISP) is a family of computer programming languages with a long history and a distinctive, fully parenthesized Polish prefix notation.[1] Originally specified in 1958, Lisp is the second-oldest high-level programming language in widespread use today; only Fortran is older (by one year). Like Fortran, Lisp has changed a great deal since its early days, and a number of dialects have existed over its history. Today, the most widely known general-purpose Lisp dialects are Common Lisp and Scheme.

Lisp was originally created as a practical mathematical notation for computer programs, influenced by the notation of Alonzo Church‘s lambda calculus. It quickly became the favored programming language for artificial intelligence (AI) research. As one of the earliest programming languages, Lisp pioneered many ideas in computer science, including tree data structures, automatic storage management, dynamic typing, conditionals, higher-order functions, recursion, and the self-hosting compiler.[2]

The name LISP derives from “LISt Processing”. Linked lists are one of Lisp language’s major data structures, and Lisp source code is itself made up of lists. As a result, Lisp programs can manipulate source code as a data structure, giving rise to the macro systems that allow programmers to create new syntax or even new domain-specific languages embedded in Lisp.

The interchangeability of code and data also gives Lisp its instantly recognizable syntax. All program code is written as s-expressions, or parenthesized lists. A function call or syntactic form is written as a list with the function or operator’s name first, and the arguments following; for instance, a function f that takes three arguments might be called using (f arg1 arg2 arg3).

Lisp was invented by John McCarthy in 1958 while he was at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). McCarthy published its design in a paper in Communications of the ACM in 1960, entitled “Recursive Functions of Symbolic Expressions and Their Computation by Machine, Part I”[3] (“Part II” was never published). He showed that with a few simple operators and a notation for functions, one can build a Turing-complete language for algorithms.

Information Processing Language was the first AI language, from 1955 or 1956, and already included many of the concepts, such as list-processing and recursion, which came to be used in Lisp.

McCarthy’s original notation used bracketed “M-expressions” that would be translated into S-expressions. As an example, the M-expression car[cons[A,B]] is equivalent to the S-expression (car (cons A B)). Once Lisp was implemented, programmers rapidly chose to use S-expressions, and M-expressions were abandoned. M-expressions surfaced again with short-lived attempts of MLISP[4] by Horace Enea and CGOL by Vaughan Pratt.

After having declined somewhat in the 1990s, Lisp has recently experienced a resurgence of interest. Most new activity is focused around open source implementations of Common Lisp, and includes the development of new portable libraries and applications. A new print edition of Practical Common Lisp by Peter Seibel, a tutorial for new Lisp programmers, was published in 2005.[20]

Many new Lisp programmers were inspired by writers such as Paul Graham and Eric S. Raymond to pursue a language others considered antiquated. New Lisp programmers often describe the language as an eye-opening experience and claim to be substantially more productive than in other languages.[21] This increase in awareness may be contrasted to the “AI winter” and Lisp’s brief gain in the mid-1990s.[22]

Dan Weinreb lists in his survey of Common Lisp implementations[23] eleven actively maintained Common Lisp implementations. Scieneer Common Lisp is a new commercial implementation forked from CMUCL with a first release in 2002.

The open source community has created new supporting infrastructure: CLiki is a wiki that collects Common Lisp related information, the Common Lisp directory lists resources, #lisp is a popular IRC channel (with support by a Lisp-written Bot), lisppaste supports the sharing and commenting of code snippets, Planet Lisp collects the contents of various Lisp-related blogs, on LispForum users discuss Lisp topics, Lispjobs is a service for announcing job offers and there is a weekly news service, Weekly Lisp News. Common-lisp.net is a hosting site for open source Common Lisp projects.

50 years of Lisp (1958–2008) has been celebrated at LISP50@OOPSLA.[24] There are regular local user meetings in Boston, Vancouver, and Hamburg. Other events include the European Common Lisp Meeting, the European Lisp Symposium and an International Lisp Conference.

The Scheme community actively maintains over twenty implementations. Several significant new implementations (Chicken, Gambit, Gauche, Ikarus, Larceny, Ypsilon) have been developed in the last few years. The Revised5 Report on the Algorithmic Language Scheme[25] standard of Scheme was widely accepted in the Scheme community. The Scheme Requests for Implementation process has created a lot of quasi standard libraries and extensions for Scheme. User communities of individual Scheme implementations continue to grow. A new language standardization process was started in 2003 and led to the R6RS Scheme standard in 2007. Academic use of Scheme for teaching computer science seems to have declined somewhat. Some universities are no longer using Scheme in their computer science introductory courses.[citation needed]

There are several new dialects of Lisp: Arc, Nu, and Clojure.

The two major dialects of Lisp used for general-purpose programming today are Common Lisp and Scheme. These languages represent significantly different design choices.

Common Lisp is a successor to MacLisp. The primary influences were Lisp Machine Lisp, MacLisp, NIL, S-1 Lisp, Spice Lisp, and Scheme.[26] It has many of the features of Lisp Machine Lisp (a large Lisp dialect used to program Lisp Machines), but was designed to be efficiently implementable on any personal computer or workstation. Common Lisp has a large language standard including many built-in data types, functions, macros and other language elements, as well as an object system (Common Lisp Object System or shorter CLOS). Common Lisp also borrowed certain features from Scheme such as lexical scoping and lexical closures.

Scheme (designed earlier) is a more minimalist design, with a much smaller set of standard features but with certain implementation features (such as tail-call optimization and full continuations) not necessarily found in Common Lisp.

Scheme is a statically scoped and properly tail-recursive dialect of the Lisp programming language invented by Guy Lewis Steele Jr. and Gerald Jay Sussman. It was designed to have exceptionally clear and simple semantics and few different ways to form expressions. A wide variety of programming paradigms, including imperative, functional, and message passing styles, find convenient expression in Scheme. Scheme continues to evolve with a series of standards (Revisedn Report on the Algorithmic Language Scheme) and a series of Scheme Requests for Implementation.

Clojure is a recent dialect of Lisp that principally targets the Java Virtual Machine, as well as the CLR, the Python VM, the Ruby VM YARV, and compiling to JavaScript. It is designed to be a pragmatic general-purpose language. Clojure draws considerable influences from Haskell and places a very strong emphasis on immutability.[27] Clojure is a compiled language, as it compiles directly to JVM bytecode, yet remains completely dynamic. Every feature supported by Clojure is supported at runtime. Clojure provides access to Java frameworks and libraries, with optional type hints and type inference, so that calls to Java can avoid reflection and enable fast primitive operations.

In addition, Lisp dialects are used as scripting languages in a number of applications, with the most well-known being Emacs Lisp in the Emacs editor, AutoLisp and later Visual Lisp in AutoCAD, Nyquist in Audacity. The small size of a minimal but useful Scheme interpreter makes it particularly popular for embedded scripting. Examples include SIOD and TinyScheme, both of which have been successfully embedded in the GIMP image processor under the generic name “Script-fu”.[28] LIBREP, a Lisp interpreter by John Harper originally based on the Emacs Lisp language, has been embedded in the Sawfish window manager.[29] The Guile interpreter is used in GnuCash. Within GCC, the MELT plugin provides a Lisp-y dialect, translated into C, to extend the compiler by coding additional passes (in MELT).

Lisp was the first homoiconic programming language: the primary representation of program code is the same type of list structure that is also used for the main data structures. As a result, Lisp functions can be manipulated, altered or even created within a Lisp program without extensive parsing or manipulation of binary machine code. This is generally considered one of the primary advantages of the language with regard to its expressive power, and makes the language amenable to metacircular evaluation.

The ubiquitous if-then-else structure, now taken for granted as an essential element of any programming language, was invented by McCarthy for use in Lisp, where it saw its first appearance in a more general form (the cond structure). It was inherited by ALGOL, which popularized it.

Lisp deeply influenced Alan Kay, the leader of the research on Smalltalk, and then in turn Lisp was influenced by Smalltalk, by adopting object-oriented programming features (classes, instances, etc.) in the late 1970s. The Flavours object system (later CLOS) introduced multiple inheritance.

Lisp introduced the concept of automatic garbage collection, in which the system walks the heap looking for unused memory. Most of the modern sophisticated garbage collection algorithms such as generational garbage collection were developed for Lisp.

Largely because of its resource requirements with respect to early computing hardware (including early microprocessors), Lisp did not become as popular outside of the AI community as Fortran and the ALGOL-descended C language. Because of its suitability to complex and dynamic applications, Lisp is currently enjoying some resurgence of popular interest.

Emacs (pron.: /ˈmæks/) and its derivatives are a family of text editors that are characterized by their extensibility. The manual for one variant describes it as “the extensible, customizable, self-documenting, real-time display editor.”[2] Development began in the mid-1970s and continues actively as of 2013. Emacs has over 2,000 built-in commands and allows the user to combine these commands into macros to automate work. The use of Emacs Lisp, a variant of the Lisp programming language, provides a deep extension capability.

The original EMACS was written in 1976 by Richard Stallman and Guy L. Steele, Jr. as a set of Editor MACroS for the TECO editor.[3][4][5][6] It was inspired by the ideas of the TECO-macro editors TECMAC and TMACS.[7]

Emacs became, along with vi, one of the two main contenders in the traditional editor wars of Unix culture. The word “emacs” is often pluralized as emacsen by analogy with boxen and VAXen.[8]

The most popular, and most ported, version of Emacs is GNU Emacs, which was created by Stallman for the GNU Project.[9] XEmacs is a common variant that branched from GNU Emacs in 1991. Both of the variants use Emacs Lisp and are for the most part compatible with each other.

SLIME, the Superior Lisp Interaction Mode for Emacs, is an Emacs mode for developing Common Lisp applications. SLIME originates in an Emacs mode called SLIM written by Eric Marsden and developed as an open-source project by Luke Gorrie and Helmut Eller. Over 100 Lisp developers have contributed code to SLIME since the project was started in 2003. SLIME uses a backend called SWANK that is loaded into Common Lisp.

SLIME works with the following Common Lisp implementations:

Some implementations of other programming languages are using SLIME:

There’s a remarkable amount of Emacs Lisp programs out there, and they do just about everything, from providing handy mail quoting utilities to providing an Emacs interface to IMDB and more! And while many such elisp hacks come bundled with Emacs, there are even more out there on the Internet, just waiting for you to try them out. The Emacs Lisp List and the EmacsWiki are both great resources for finding interesting and useful elisp.

So, you’ve gone and downloaded some elisp file (foo.el, say). Now, what do you do with it? Well, the community convetion on the matter is to toss .el files in, say, ~/elisp/ (an elisp directory in your home directory). Once you have such a directory you need to ensure that it’s present in Emacs’ load-path variable. This is typically done by adding something like this to your ~/.emacs file:

(add-to-list 'load-path "~/elisp")

Next, you’ll need to configure Emacs to load the new file. Most of the time, you should be able to add (require 'foo) to ~/.emacs (where foo means foo.el).

Simplify! Use install.el

That’s often all you have to do, but there are lots of exceptions. Fortunately, Stefan Monnier’s install.el handles the vast majority of elisp files you’ll run into, and is very easy to use itself. Install it by following my directions above. Now, whenever you’d like to install an elisp file, simply invoke the install-file command (via M-x install-file RET). That’s it!

NEWS: EMACS 24.3 is finally available!

– emacs24 will be updated only when I change the build process or when new emacs24 versions are realeased
– emacs-snapshot are updated between once a week and once every two weeks on average. These versions are created from those of Julien Danjou for Debian unstable: http://emacs.naquadah.org/.

To build this PPA, I created this script: https://gist.github.com/2360655

Please report bugs to https://bugs.launchpad.net/emacs-snapshot/, but before reporting, please follow these steps that will ensure a clean installation:

$ sudo apt-get update
$ sudo apt-get install
$ sudo apt-get purge emacs-snapshot-common emacs-snapshot-bin-common emacs-snapshot emacs-snapshot-el emacs-snapshot-gtk emacs23 emacs23-bin-common emacs23-common emacs23-el emacs23-nox emacs23-lucid auctex emacs24 emacs24-bin-common emacs24-common emacs24-common-non-dfsg

To add this PPA:
$ sudo add-apt-repository ppa:cassou/emacs
$ sudo apt-get update

Then, for emacs-snapshot:
$ sudo apt-get install emacs-snapshot-el emacs-snapshot-gtk emacs-snapshot

*Or*, for emacs24:
$ sudo apt-get install emacs24 emacs24-el emacs24-common-non-dfsg

Adding this PPA to your system

You can update your system with unsupported packages from this untrusted PPA by adding ppa:cassou/emacs to your system’s Software Sources. (Read about installing)